Mission & Achievements

APDIC promotes phase diagram evaluation and the dissemination of high-quality information, its application in industry and academia.

APDIC Recommended Papers for Phase Diagram Evaluations

The members of APDIC (Alloy Phase Diagram International Commission) evaluated a series of publications for providing guidance in the critical evaluation of phase diagrams and thermochemical data.  The publications which are considered to be broadly useful for critical evaluations can be openly accessed.  Most of the papers are published in the Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams (BAPD), Journal of Phase Equilibria (JPE) and Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion (JPED). 


Open access papers from BAPD, JPE, and JPED selected by APDIC:

H. Okamoto and T.B. Massalski, "Guidelines for binary phase diagram assessment,” JPE 14 (1993) 316-335.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02668229

H. Okamoto and T.B Massalski, "Thermodynamically improbable phase diagrams,” JPE 12 (1991) 148-168.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02645711

R.D. Shull, "Phase diagram sample preparation,” BAPD 4 (1983) 5-15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02880301

D.A. Goodman, J.W. Cahn and L.H. Bennett, "The centennial of the Gibbs-Konovalov rule for congruent points: Its underlying theoretical basis and its application to phase diagram evaluation,” BAPD 2 (1981) 29-34.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02873696

J. Zhao and M.R. Notis, "Phase transformation kinetics and the assessment of equilibrium and metastable states,” JPE 14 (1993) 303-315.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02668228


Freely available publications:

E.R. Kreidler, “Standards for publication of phase equilibria studies,” in “Applications of Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy and Ceramics Workshop Proceedings,” Vol. 2, Ed. G.C. Carter, NBS- SR 496, NBS, Gaithersburg, MD, pp. 1307-1324 (1977).
and more articles in Vol. 2
and also articles in the Vol. 1 of this Special Report

Bazyleva et al, “Good reporting practice for thermophysical and thermochemical property measurements (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem. 2021; 93(2): 253–272; Although the paper focusses on organics it has many suggestions that also apply to inorganics and alloys. https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2020-0403

W.J. Boettinger, U.R. Kattner, K.-W. Moon and J.H. Perepezko, “DTA and heat-flux DSC measurements of alloy melting and freezing,” SP 960-15, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, (2007). https://www.nist.gov/publications/recommended-practice-guide-dta-and-heat-flux-dsc-measurements-alloy-melting-and

A. Prince, The critical assessment of ternary alloy phase diagram data,” unpublished research with permission by S. Prince (2009). http://www.msiport.com/msi-research/free-tools/Prince-TernaryEval.pdf


MSIT Best Practice Guidelines for Evaluations and Notes for Authors:

“How to evaluate and publish Binary Phase Diagram Data,” 3rd ed., Eds: G. Cacciamani, G. Effenberg, R. Ferro, S. Ilyenko, P. Perrot, A. Pisch, P. Rogl, R. Schmid-Fetzer, MSI GmbH, Stuttgart Germany, (2012).  http://www.msiport.com/fileadmin/content/research/binary_evaluations/docs/notes_authors_binary.pdf

“How to evaluate and publish Ternary Phase Diagram Data,” 6th ed., Eds: G. Effenberg, R. Schmid-Fetzer, MSI GmbH, Stuttgart Germany, (2012).  http://www.msiport.com/fileadmin/content/research/ternary_evaluations/docs/notes_authors_ternary.pdf



A. Prince, “Alloy Phase Equilibria,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, NL, (1966). http://www.msiport.com/msi-research/free-tools/a-prince-alloy-phase-equilibria/


More recommended publications:

H.L. Lukas, E.-Th. Henig, and G. Petzow, “50 years reaction scheme after Erich Scheil,” Z. Metallkd., 77 (1986) 360-367.

R. Ferro, G. Borzone, G. Cacciamani and R. Raggio, “Calorimetric measurements in metallurgy: remarks on calibration and some specific problems,” Thermochimica Acta 347 (2000) 103-122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(99)00422-0

R. Ferro, G. Cacciamani and G. Borzone, “Remarks about data reliability in experimental and computational alloy thermochemistry,” Intermetallics 11 (2003) 1081-1094.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-9795(03)00145-6

R. Ferro and A. Saccone, “Thermal analysis and alloy phase diagrams,” Thermochimica Acta 418 (2004) 23-32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tea.2003.11.040

T. Gödecke, “Ableitung des Kistallisationspfades in ternären Gusslegierungen (Derivation of the solidification path in ternary cast alloys),” Z. Metallkd. 92 (2001) 966-978. (in German)

D.S. Evans and A. Prince, “The critical assessment of ternary alloy phase diagram data,” J. Less-Common Met. 114 (1985) 225-239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5088(85)90405-9

D.S. Evans and A. Prince, “The thermal analysis of Sn-rich Cd-Sn alloys,” Thermochim. Acta 58 (1982) 199-209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(82)87082-2

Z. Moser and K. Fitzner, “The use of experimental thermodynamic data in the phase equilibria verification,” Thermochim. Acta 332 (1999) 1-19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(99)00061-1

Dovbenko, Oleksandr & Dreval’, L. & Du, Yong & Yuling, Liu & Liu, Shuhong & Iljenko, Svitlana & Effenberg, Günter. (2019). Critical evaluation of ternary phase diagram data: Important considerations in the scrutiny of the correctness, coherence, and interpretation. Calphad. 68. 101719.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.calphad.2019.101719

J.-Z. Zhao (Ed.), “Methods for Phase Diagram Determination,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, NL, (2007).


With special emphasis on Calphad-type thermodynamic assessments:

H.L. Lukas and S.G. Fries, “Demonstration of the Use of "BINGSS" with the Mg-Zn System as Example,” JPED 13 (1992) 532-541.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02665766

K.C. Hari Kumar and P. Wollants, “Some guidelines for thermodynamic optimisation of phase diagrams,” J. Alloys Compd. 320 (2001) 189-198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8388(00)01491-2

R. Schmid-Fetzer, D. Andersson, P. Y. Chevalier, L. Eleno, O. Fabrichnaya, U.R. Kattner, B. Sundman, C. Wang, A. Watson, L. Zabdyr, and M. Zinkevich, “Assessment techniques, database design and software facilities for thermodynamics and diffusion: Group Report from the Ringberg Workshop on Thermodynamic Modeling and First Principles Calculations,” Calphad, 31 (2007) 38-52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.calphad.2006.02.007

F. Tang and B. Hallstedt, “Using the PARROT module of Thermo-Calc with the Cr–Ni system as example,” Calphad 55 (2016) 260-269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.calphad.2016.10.003

H.L. Lukas, B. Sundman and S.G. Fries, “Computational Thermodynamics: The Calphad Method,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, (2007).


Other suggested papers from BAPD, JPE, and JPED:
BAPD=Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams
JPE=Journal of Phase Equilibria
JPED=Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion

S.M. Allen and J.W. Cahn, "Phase diagram features associated with multicritical points in alloy systems,” BAPD 3 (1982) 287.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02869288

G. Inden, "The effect of continuous transformations on phase diagrams,” BAPD 2 (1981) 412.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02876141

Y.T. Zhu, J.H. Devletian and A. Manthiram, "Application of differential thermal analysis to solid- solid transitions in phase diagram determination,” JPE 15 (1994) 37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02667680

J.W. Cahn, "Obtaining inferences about relative stability and metastable phase sequences from phase diagrams,” BAPD 1(2) (1980) 27.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02881174

N.A. Gokcen and Z. Moser, "Thermodynamics of phase equilibria,” JPE 14 (1993) 288.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02668226

A.D. Romig, Jr., "Thermodynamic considerations in the analysis of phase stability: The role of interfacial equilibrium in the determination of phase diagrams by x-ray microanalytical techniques,” BAPD 8 (1987) 308.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02869262

O.N. Carlson and J.F. Smith, "Effects of interstitial impurities on phase equilibria,” BAPD 8 (1987) 208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02874906

J.W. Herchenroeder and K.A. Gschneidner, "Stable, metastable and nonexistent allotropes,” BAPD 9 (1988) 2.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02877443

J.F. Smith, "Crystallography and phase equilibria a review: Part III- Second-order transitions and approximations,” JPED 26 (2005) 5.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11669-005-0053-0

J.F. Smith, "Crystallography and phase equilibria a review: Part I- Basics,” JPED 25 (2004) 405.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11669-004-0131-8

V. Raghavan and D.P. Antia, "Pressure variable, phase rule, and phase diagram: A tutorial,” JPE 19 (1998) 101.  https://doi.org/10.1361/105497198770342553

A.P. Miodownik, "The effect of magnetic transformations on phase diagrams,” BAPD 2 (1981) 406.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02876140

L. Bennett, “Editor’s Corner,” BAPD 4 (1983) 4.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02880300

M. Hillert and J. F. Smith, "The shape of solidus and liquidus curves,”.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02868074 and https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02868075 (Nb-V)

R.G. Connell, "A tutorial on flow diagrams: A tool for developing the structure of multicomponent phase diagrams,” JPE 15 (1994) 6.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02667677

V. Raghavan and D.P. Antia, "Adjoining phase regions on two-dimensional phase diagrams: A tutorial,” JPE 21 (2000) 121.  https://doi.org/10.1361/105497100770340156

J.F. Smith, K.J. Lee and D.M. Bailey, "Resolution of conflicting data: I. Temperature and Equilibrium,” BAPD 5 (1984) 133.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02868942

W.C. Johnson and P.W. Voorhees, "Coherent Phase Diagrams,” BAPD 9 (1988) 208.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02881258

A. Prince, "To speculate or not to speculate,” BAPD 2 (1981) 149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02881452

J.F. Smith, "Crystallography and phase equilibria a review: Part II- Space groups and structure,” JPED 25 (2004) 497.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11669-004-0062-4

N. Kanani and K. Loehberg, "Nomenclature and geometrical representation of invariant phase equilibria in multicomponent systems,” BAPD 5 (1984) 229.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02868538

D.E. Peterson, "Disturbance of equilibria by decay of radioactive components,” BAPD 8 (1987) 203.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02874905